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Fundamental 4C's

As only 15% of all the Diamonds mined from the earth are considered gem-quality, our team of professional in-house gemologists are here to share their expertise and knowledge with you. We aim to gain your awareness and understanding with a brief explanation on the crucial factors involved in selecting the Diamond of your choice. Join us as we begin to introduce the fundamental 4C's in a systematic and simple manner.

Diamond Colour

As colour is usually the first sight of any Diamond, the Diamond colour grade makes it as one of the most obvious factors amongst the 4C's. Most gem-quality Diamonds are evaluated based on the degree of colour absence. To keep it simple, the more colourless a Diamond is, the higher its value and rarity.

Our Diamonds are graded with reference to a colour-grading system beginning from D-to-Z colour grade. The scale begins with the D colour grade, indicating colourless with an ascending presence of colour as it moves down the scale to Z colour grade, representing light yellow. Generally, it is substantially difficult for an untrained eye to tell the difference of Diamonds between colour grades apart without clear comparison. However, when a Diamond colour grade does not fall within the D-Z colour range, it is then categorized under 'Fancy-Coloured'.

GIA Colour Grading Scale

Diamond Clarity

Although known as probably the least noticeable factor amongst the Diamond 4C's, a Diamond clarity is not one to be ignored and should be taken highly into consideration. Natural Diamonds are formed under extremely high heat and pressure deep in the earth over the course of millions of years. This intense process results in the development of a wide variety of internal characteristics called 'inclusions' and external characteristics called 'blemishes'. These imperfections are barely noticeable to the naked untrained eyes and require great skill and experience from an expert grader under 10x magnification, a worldwide clarity grading standard.

A Diamond's clarity grade is determined by the position, size, relief, number and nature of these natural imperfections with consideration to the overall appearance of the Diamond. Similarly, the more pure a Diamond is, the higher its clarity grade, value and rarity. The Diamond clarity scale is divided into 6 categories and are further subdivided into 11 specific grades. It is important to fully understand them individually when searching for the right Diamond.

Diamond Clarity Chart

Flawless (FL) - No inclusions and no blemishes visible under 10x magnification. A Flawless Diamond is extremely rare and almost impossible to find.

Internally Flawless (IF) - No inclusions visible and only tiny blemishes under 10x magnification. An Internally Flawless Diamond is very rare where it is estimated that only 2% of the world's gem-quality Diamonds are considered IF clarity grade.

Very Very Slightly Included (VVS1 and VVS2) - Slight inclusions visible under 10x magnification where it is difficult for even a skilled grader to notice. VVS clarity grade Diamonds are estimated to make up only 7% of the world's gem-quality Diamonds.

Very Slightly Included (VS1 and VS2) - Minor inclusions observed with effort under 10x magnification. VS clarity Diamonds make up about 14% of the world's gem-quality Diamonds.

Slightly Included (SI1 and SI2) - Noticeable inclusions visible under 10x magnification. It is estimated that 25% of the world's gem-quality Diamonds are considered SI clarity grade.

Included (I1, I2 and I3) - Obvious inclusions under 10x magnification. Made up of 52% of the world's gem-quality Diamonds, its high level of imperfections, possibly visible even to the naked eyes may affect the Diamond's brilliance, durability and transparency.

Diamond Cut

A Diamond's cut greatly contributes to the stone's final beauty and value. Amongst the 4C's, it is the most technical and complex aspect as it solely relies on the precise artistry and workmanship of the skilled Diamond cutter. One of the major reasons why Diamonds are considered a women's best friend is their ability to transmit light and sparkle so intensely. The balance between fire, brilliance and scintillation of a Diamond owes its beauty to the way the Diamond is cut.

Many misinterpret a Diamond's cut to its shape namely Round Brilliant or of fancy cuts but in fact, it is actually refers to how well the facets of the Diamonds are made. The better a Diamond is cut, the higher its value, level of sparkle and rarity. This is because a well-cut Diamond allows maximum interaction with light which in return unleashes the best light return possible. This explains why you find some Diamonds to appear more lively and have superior radiance than of others.

As a Diamond generally consists of 57-58 facets, its proportions, symmetry and polish are taken into account in deciding a Diamond's cut grade from Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair and Poor.

Diamond Cut

Diamond Carat

The Diamond carat weight is perhaps the most well-known, noticeable and soughtafter factor in all the 4C's for it is a frequent occurance that the first impression is all about the carat weight. The Diamond carat weight simply represents the metric unit for the weight of a Diamond where each carat is subdivided into 100 points and is equivalent to 0.02 grams. This enables absolute accurate measurement of a Diamond to the hundredth decimal place.

Naturally, having all other factors constant, the larger a Diamond is, the greater its value due to its desirability and rarity. Bear in mind that two Diamonds of equal carat weight may vary in value as it relies on the other three factors of the Diamond 4C's namely, Colour, Clarity and Cut. Overall, a Diamond's beauty and value can only be fairly judged when all 4C's are well-considered.

Diamond Carat


Fluorescence refers to the intensity of a Diamond's reaction when exposed to long-wave UV light, essentially found in daylight. It is considered a Diamond's unique feature by some as the Diamond emits a glow due to its natural chemical composition during its formation over millions of years.

In many occurrence, observers favor the appearance of Diamonds that have medium to strong fluorescence. It is estimated that over 40% of all Diamonds exhibit fluorescence so don't be alarmed if you come across a Diamond that does. Our gemologists emphasize that Diamond fluorescence neither affects the structural integrity of the Diamond nor does it harm its appearance. The strength of the fluorescence is graded from None, Faint, Medium, Strong to Very Strong.

More than 95% of the Diamonds that fluoresce displays a common blue colour and in rare cases, colours such as yellow and white are shown. Surprising to most people, blue fluorescence actually complements well with the yellow hue of Diamonds. This improves the apparent colour of a Diamond as the presence of blue fluorescence contribute to making a yellowish diamond appear more colourless. As a Diamond's beauty should be accounted as a whole, preference for a Diamond with fluorescence is highly subjective so it is important to take this aspect into consideration when choosing the right Diamond.

Fluorescence Chart